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Dies wird in der Regel über ein soziales Netzwerk oder eine Gruppe getan. Auch wir haben uns auf dieser Basis die verschiedenen Anbieter angeschaut und dabei vor allem darauf geachtet, wie sich deren Erfolg langfristig entwickelt hat. Later, Aria go here a call from Ezra, while waiting for him day, Zwergen Spiele have his apartment, as per their agreement.

These two serial ports are the ones at which our energy metering nodes are connected directly using UART. Thus only after opening these ports, we would be able to access these ports.

After then we read the previous configurations of the serial ports and set a new one to match our EMIC capability.

After successful loading of the calibration constants, we set a signal handler for emergency stopping the gateway server application.

Here we do all wise deallocation of the resources like server file descriptors, serial ports and all that we have used in our application.

As gateway is also responsible for storing the meter readings in a database, here we use sqlite database for storing the reading from the meter in a structured format.

If the database file was not there initially, it is created else it is opened. Now to implement parallelism in the gateway application, we implement three threads running three different applicational functionalities.

Here we initialize three threads. For the prototype demonstration, we have chosen Beaglebone black, a development board from Texas Instruments as the gateway processor.

It has been equipped with a minimum set of features to allow the user to experience the power of the processor and is not intended as a full development platform as many of the features and interfaces supplied by the processor are not accessible from the BeagleBone Black via onboard support of some interfaces.

BeagleBone Black is not a complete product designed to do any particular function. It is a foundation for experimentation and learning how to program the processor and to access the peripherals by the creation of your own software and hardware.

It also offers access to many of the interfaces and allows for the use of add-on boards called capes, to add many different combinations of features.

A user may also develop their own board or add their own circuit. This Application will be responsible for communication from gateway through Wi-Fi.

Then it will send command for specific data as required by user and then it will display the data send by gateway in different form.

There are various Buttons for various types of data to be displayed, on each click a specific command will be sent so that gateway will recognize that which data to be sent to user from Database.

This meter is smart in the sense that we can set a limit of energy consumption in the application the meter will send that limit to gateway, gateway will keep track of energy consumption on reaching that limit it will automatically turn OFF the appliances.

In the above picture we can see that Meter1 is enabled while Meter2 is not, thus we will be able to use buttons of meter 1 only; Buttons related to meter 2 are disabled to prevent them from accidental use.

Also there are three buttons to send commands for retrieving current usage data, data usage of previous weeks of current month and previous day data consumption.

The current usage will be shown on the same screen and the data that will be shown is Power, Voltage, Current, and Energy. The other commands will cause data to be displayed on different Activity in form of graphs.

At the bottom the text box is to set limit for monthly consumption, at button below that will show the Energy consumption of previous month. For showing data in form of graphs we have used Achartengine library Which we have to copy in libs folder of project and we have to add its graphical activity in our mainfest file.

We have used Achartengine because it is free, lite and supports various types of graphs. To send command and receive data we have used Stream Sockets, because in case of UDP sockets there may be chance that data may be lost which will cause application to behave abnormally.

Data sending and receiving is a time consuming process so for each communication a thread will be created, Communication will happen in its handler and results will be published by its runnable in main thread.

On close of each thread its socket will also be closed. TCP Sockets provide a reliable, bidirectional, byte-stream communication channel.

Bidirectional means that data may be transmitted in either direction between two sockets. Byte-stream means that, as with pipes, there is no concept of message boundaries.

Thus we should use. We have used here Threads, for each click to perform a network operation a thread will be created which will be responsible for data transfer.

Also for each thread we need to implement a handler and a runnable method. HANDLER- Handlers are used to schedule the actions in thread, in broad sense we can say that it queues the list of actions to be performed.

Or to enqueue an action to be performed on a different thread. The connections of other parts of the circuit like switches, relays and metering node to the gateway is shown in figure above.

Two energy metering nodes as described in section 2. The energy metering nodes receives its isolated power and non-isolate power from the gateway itself.

Because the EMIC works in direct connection with the mains power sensing circuitry, so all of its pins are being exposed to mains current.

Thus to make it not harm the gateway circuitry, optoisolator based isolation circuit is being provided and thus a safe IO connection is made to the gateway.

Both the RXD and TXD pins are galvanically isolated from the mains and thus the beaglebone circuit is well protected from any mains signal.

Both the meters as well as the load control circuited are powered from the 5v rail of the beaglebone itself and the beaglebone receives its power from a 5v, 1A regulated DC supply.

The requests information from the energy node via wired communication as described above. Data is transmitted and received LSB first, with one startbit, eight data bits, and one stop bit.

The baud rate is defined in the SerialCtrl register. Afterchip reset, the default baud rate is , if MCLK is4. The baud rate is based on the contents ofbits BR[] in the SerialCtrl register.

Upon power-up, the CS requires an initial register configuration before executing power measurements. One of the key configurations is adjusting the system scaling for the power meter application.

The key scaling constants are identified through calibration and compensations performed at the power meter manufacturer. Afterthe configuration and calibration constants are established, the calibration constants are downloaded during a normal power-on reset.

The application will start conversions and report power and input performance over time. During power conversions and calculations, the analog inputs are sampled at kHz, decimated down to 4kHzhigh-rate conversion cycles.

Signal conditioning is provided in the high-rate path gain, phase, and DC offset and in the lower rate path no load current RMS offset, AC offset, active and reactive power offset.

Now to fetch real time energy data from the energy nodes, the gateway has to follow a sequence of steps which are described in the section below:.

Increasing the energy consumption awareness in every household is an important step to make the user able to man- ages his energy consumption.

Thus users are able to learn the energy profile of each device and to identify the devices that consume most power at home. Based on this knowledge, users have the possibility to develop better strategies for saving energy costs.

Further, our system considers possible future changes in the energy market demonstrating novel functionalities for energy aware smart homes.

Users could then configure their smart devices to respond to these offers. As smart homes become even smarter, systems could learn over the time and calculate the most efficient ways to configure the home appliance or to provide users with recommendations on how to save energy.

A smart home application has to be developed in a user centric way and must not be purely technology-driven. It is a thin line between an effective, user - supporting home automation system and an annoying, overly intrusive one.

Now, after having a running prototype we will shift focus to user evaluations, to gain deeper knowledge on how to design energy efficient smart homes.

We also applied novel interaction techniques, which allow users to use their mobile phones as magic lenses to view the energy consumption of their appliances just by pointing gestures.

When users require more details or when they like to compare energy consumption between devices, they can easily transfer the information to a larger display such as a TV.

Users are also able to control the appliances such as turn on, off, start washing, play movie etc. This seamless communication among devices allows users to interact with the appliances using various kinds of device types.

Reply 1 year ago. Hi Abishek, great project. I'm building a similar project with the CS and was curious as to what test equipment you used to do the phase compensation?

Given the App Note specifies using a full scale reference at pf 0. Can anyone please tell me how i calibrate my CS bare IC for V, 15A load, using W bulb as reference load dont have full load for calibration Thanks in advance.

Not gonna lie, you lost me around step 4. Thanks for sharing. Reply 5 years ago. Reply 3 years ago. Hello, I have some questions.

What did you use for the calibration load? I need a 5 A load for calibration and I'm at a lost. And, why the 60o current lagging for the calibration?

Would it be ok to use 5 incandescent lamps in parallel that draw 1A each, after they have stabilized? Thanks you for your awesome project, I'm doing one similar but with an arduino.

Reply 4 years ago. I was trying to work with the CS for a project of mine, but I am stuck on calibration, can you help?

Reply 5 years ago on Introduction. Thanks In fact I tried to but for some reason I am still not getting good results. It might be my board though.

Actually for accurate results,you have to calibrate it at atleast half the load u designed it for. Je nach Anwendungsbereich sind unterschiedliche Begriffsfestlegungen üblich.

Hingegen in digitalen Schaltungen, wie sie im Bereich der Digitaltechnik üblich sind, ist eine mathematische Folge durch physikalische Parameter wie eine elektrische Spannung nicht darstellbar: Das Digitalsignal wird in diesem Fall durch einen zeitkontinuierlichen Verlauf gebildet, wobei sich der kontinuierliche Verlauf nur zu bestimmten Zeitpunkten ändert und zwischen den Zeitpunkten im Wert konstant ist.

Die Abtastung und Bildung des Digitalsignals erfolgt üblicherweise in konstanten Zeitintervallen, allerdings ist dies nicht zwingend notwendig. Ein Digitalsignal x [ n ] kann als eine Folge von Zahlen, welche aus einem abgegrenzten Wertvorrat stammen, beschrieben werden.

Der Index n stellt die auf die Abtastrate normierte Zeitvariable dar — üblicherweise erfolgt die Abtastung zu konstanten zeitlichen Abständen T s.

Der Kehrwert wird als Abtastrate oder als Abtastfrequenz f s bezeichnet. In nebenstehender Abbildung ist der beispielhafte Verlauf eines Analogsignals in grau und die daraus gebildete digitale Signalfolge in rot mit den Werten:.

Wesentlich ist, dass die Werte zwischen den Abtastzeitpunkten nicht Null sind oder andere Werte umfassen, sondern nicht definiert sind.

Die Abbildung auf ganze Zahlen ist dabei willkürlich gewählt. Das Nyquist-Shannon-Abtasttheorem beschreibt in diesem Fall den Effekt, dass in der Folge x [ n ] nur dann die vollständige Information des analogen Signalverlaufs enthalten sein kann, wenn dessen höchsten Frequenzanteile f a kleiner als die halbe Abtastfrequenz f s sind:.

Ordnung gebildet und stellt dann einen zeitkontinuierlichen Verlauf dar, welcher sich nur zu den einzelnen Abtastzeitpunkten in seinem Wert ändert.

Die einzelnen zeitdiskreten Abtastwerte der Folge werden mit der Rechteckfunktion gefaltet. Daraus entsteht ein Digitalsignal, wie in rot in der nebenstehenden Abbildung beispielhaft dargestellt.

Dieser Verlauf f t kann, zumindest näherungsweise, beispielsweise durch einen Spannungsverlauf physikalisch in einer Digitalschaltung und in integrierten Schaltungen realisiert werden.

Dabei ist zu beachten, dass durch die Faltung mit der Rechteckfunktion bei der Umwandlung in den ursprünglichen analogen Signalverlauf mittels Digital-Analog-Umsetzer DAC eine Verzerrung des Frequenzspektrums auftritt, welche durch entsprechende Filter kompensiert werden muss.

Die Verzerrung entspricht der Sinc-Funktion , welche die Fouriertransformierte der Rechteckfunktion darstellt. Höherfrequente Details des aufgenommenen Quellsignals als die halbe Abtastrate, in diesem Fall also ca.

Thanks to SBProjects. An Arduino or other microcontroller can be connected to either end of the system to transmit data left side or receive data right side.

For the hardware in this tutorial, you will need the following materials. You may not need everything though depending on what you have.

Add it to your cart, read through the guide, and adjust the cart as necessary. You will be setting up two separate circuits both using an Arduino.

Be sure to connect your LED correctly! The short leg is negative and is connected to ground GND. Also, pay attention to the polarity of the TSOP Refer to the TSOP datasheet for the pinout of the sensor.

If you use a larger value resistor, the LED won't light as bright and your range will suffer. Shirriff has written a library for IR remote.

You can obtain this library through the Arduino Library Manager. Search for IRremote by shirriff and you should be able to install the latest version.

If you prefer downloading the libraries manually you can grab them from the GitHub repository :. The IRremote library is a powerful tool for adding IR to your project.

Whether you want to send IR codes out to an appliance, or transmit IR codes from a remote to your Arduino or both! We'll go over some of the simple stuff you can do with the library.

For more help using it, check out Ken Shirriff's blog. IR remote controls are as ubiquitous as their appliance counterparts.

What if you could put all of those old remote controls to use in your next project? Once you can receive codes from individual button presses, your remote control and Arduino become a general purpose, short range, communication interface!

Upload the sketch to your Arduino. The sketch will automatically decode the type of remote you are using and identify which button on your remote is pressed.

Open the serial port in the Arduino IDE at bps and hit different buttons on your remote. Terminal window displaying random button presses on my remote.

Different buttons show different codes. When specific buttons are pressed, you can use the incoming values to do something else in your code, for example turn on and off a motor or LED.

In order to control your appliance with the LED, you need to know what type of IR protocol your appliance uses. The easiest way to find this out is to have the remote that comes with the appliance.

After you have loaded the sketch, open the Arduino serial monitor to bps. Point your remote directly at the TSOP and hit a button. You should see specific codes in the terminal window, corresponding to the button you hit on the remote.

Now if you point the LED at your appliance and hit the push button that is connected to your Arduino, the code for the button press on your remote will be sent.

For example, the transmitting IR example circuit received an unknown code when the volume up button on my Panasonic remote was hit. The data bytes on the second line are the raw codes displayed as mark and space timings for the volume up command.

Different appliance manufacturers use different protocols to send commands. This is why you have to define the manufacturer of the appliance to use this library.

Also, note that the Sony command needs to be sent three times using a for loop. Every protocol will have its own intricacies.

A good reference for un-official commands to common IR protocols can be found on San Bergmans' website:. There are a few common protocols the IR Arduino library supports.

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The register value is read as a bit hexadecimal number, which is proportioned to represent a 0. At maximum voltage 0. Knowing the maximum hardware scaling and the most recent AFE register values in relation to the full-scale input, the MCU routines are able to calculate the actual power measurements.

The application for the gateway is designed completely using C language. The flowchart for the application is shown in figure enclosed. The directions of the GPIO pins are then set to accommodate the functionality used on the pin.

For example the pins at which the relays were connected were chosen as outputs while the pins at which switches were connected were chosen as inputs.

These two serial ports are the ones at which our energy metering nodes are connected directly using UART. Thus only after opening these ports, we would be able to access these ports.

After then we read the previous configurations of the serial ports and set a new one to match our EMIC capability. After successful loading of the calibration constants, we set a signal handler for emergency stopping the gateway server application.

Here we do all wise deallocation of the resources like server file descriptors, serial ports and all that we have used in our application.

As gateway is also responsible for storing the meter readings in a database, here we use sqlite database for storing the reading from the meter in a structured format.

If the database file was not there initially, it is created else it is opened. Now to implement parallelism in the gateway application, we implement three threads running three different applicational functionalities.

Here we initialize three threads. For the prototype demonstration, we have chosen Beaglebone black, a development board from Texas Instruments as the gateway processor.

It has been equipped with a minimum set of features to allow the user to experience the power of the processor and is not intended as a full development platform as many of the features and interfaces supplied by the processor are not accessible from the BeagleBone Black via onboard support of some interfaces.

BeagleBone Black is not a complete product designed to do any particular function. It is a foundation for experimentation and learning how to program the processor and to access the peripherals by the creation of your own software and hardware.

It also offers access to many of the interfaces and allows for the use of add-on boards called capes, to add many different combinations of features.

A user may also develop their own board or add their own circuit. This Application will be responsible for communication from gateway through Wi-Fi.

Then it will send command for specific data as required by user and then it will display the data send by gateway in different form.

There are various Buttons for various types of data to be displayed, on each click a specific command will be sent so that gateway will recognize that which data to be sent to user from Database.

This meter is smart in the sense that we can set a limit of energy consumption in the application the meter will send that limit to gateway, gateway will keep track of energy consumption on reaching that limit it will automatically turn OFF the appliances.

In the above picture we can see that Meter1 is enabled while Meter2 is not, thus we will be able to use buttons of meter 1 only; Buttons related to meter 2 are disabled to prevent them from accidental use.

Also there are three buttons to send commands for retrieving current usage data, data usage of previous weeks of current month and previous day data consumption.

The current usage will be shown on the same screen and the data that will be shown is Power, Voltage, Current, and Energy. The other commands will cause data to be displayed on different Activity in form of graphs.

At the bottom the text box is to set limit for monthly consumption, at button below that will show the Energy consumption of previous month.

For showing data in form of graphs we have used Achartengine library Which we have to copy in libs folder of project and we have to add its graphical activity in our mainfest file.

We have used Achartengine because it is free, lite and supports various types of graphs. To send command and receive data we have used Stream Sockets, because in case of UDP sockets there may be chance that data may be lost which will cause application to behave abnormally.

Data sending and receiving is a time consuming process so for each communication a thread will be created, Communication will happen in its handler and results will be published by its runnable in main thread.

On close of each thread its socket will also be closed. TCP Sockets provide a reliable, bidirectional, byte-stream communication channel.

Bidirectional means that data may be transmitted in either direction between two sockets. Byte-stream means that, as with pipes, there is no concept of message boundaries.

Thus we should use. We have used here Threads, for each click to perform a network operation a thread will be created which will be responsible for data transfer.

Also for each thread we need to implement a handler and a runnable method. HANDLER- Handlers are used to schedule the actions in thread, in broad sense we can say that it queues the list of actions to be performed.

Or to enqueue an action to be performed on a different thread. The connections of other parts of the circuit like switches, relays and metering node to the gateway is shown in figure above.

Two energy metering nodes as described in section 2. The energy metering nodes receives its isolated power and non-isolate power from the gateway itself.

Because the EMIC works in direct connection with the mains power sensing circuitry, so all of its pins are being exposed to mains current. Thus to make it not harm the gateway circuitry, optoisolator based isolation circuit is being provided and thus a safe IO connection is made to the gateway.

Both the RXD and TXD pins are galvanically isolated from the mains and thus the beaglebone circuit is well protected from any mains signal.

Both the meters as well as the load control circuited are powered from the 5v rail of the beaglebone itself and the beaglebone receives its power from a 5v, 1A regulated DC supply.

The requests information from the energy node via wired communication as described above. Data is transmitted and received LSB first, with one startbit, eight data bits, and one stop bit.

The baud rate is defined in the SerialCtrl register. Afterchip reset, the default baud rate is , if MCLK is4. The baud rate is based on the contents ofbits BR[] in the SerialCtrl register.

Upon power-up, the CS requires an initial register configuration before executing power measurements. One of the key configurations is adjusting the system scaling for the power meter application.

The key scaling constants are identified through calibration and compensations performed at the power meter manufacturer. Afterthe configuration and calibration constants are established, the calibration constants are downloaded during a normal power-on reset.

The application will start conversions and report power and input performance over time. During power conversions and calculations, the analog inputs are sampled at kHz, decimated down to 4kHzhigh-rate conversion cycles.

Signal conditioning is provided in the high-rate path gain, phase, and DC offset and in the lower rate path no load current RMS offset, AC offset, active and reactive power offset.

Now to fetch real time energy data from the energy nodes, the gateway has to follow a sequence of steps which are described in the section below:.

Increasing the energy consumption awareness in every household is an important step to make the user able to man- ages his energy consumption.

Thus users are able to learn the energy profile of each device and to identify the devices that consume most power at home.

Based on this knowledge, users have the possibility to develop better strategies for saving energy costs. Further, our system considers possible future changes in the energy market demonstrating novel functionalities for energy aware smart homes.

Users could then configure their smart devices to respond to these offers. As smart homes become even smarter, systems could learn over the time and calculate the most efficient ways to configure the home appliance or to provide users with recommendations on how to save energy.

A smart home application has to be developed in a user centric way and must not be purely technology-driven. It is a thin line between an effective, user - supporting home automation system and an annoying, overly intrusive one.

Now, after having a running prototype we will shift focus to user evaluations, to gain deeper knowledge on how to design energy efficient smart homes.

We also applied novel interaction techniques, which allow users to use their mobile phones as magic lenses to view the energy consumption of their appliances just by pointing gestures.

When users require more details or when they like to compare energy consumption between devices, they can easily transfer the information to a larger display such as a TV.

Users are also able to control the appliances such as turn on, off, start washing, play movie etc. This seamless communication among devices allows users to interact with the appliances using various kinds of device types.

Reply 1 year ago. Hi Abishek, great project. I'm building a similar project with the CS and was curious as to what test equipment you used to do the phase compensation?

Given the App Note specifies using a full scale reference at pf 0. Can anyone please tell me how i calibrate my CS bare IC for V, 15A load, using W bulb as reference load dont have full load for calibration Thanks in advance.

Not gonna lie, you lost me around step 4. Thanks for sharing. Reply 5 years ago. Reply 3 years ago. Hello, I have some questions.

What did you use for the calibration load? I need a 5 A load for calibration and I'm at a lost. And, why the 60o current lagging for the calibration?

Would it be ok to use 5 incandescent lamps in parallel that draw 1A each, after they have stabilized? Thanks you for your awesome project, I'm doing one similar but with an arduino.

Reply 4 years ago. I was trying to work with the CS for a project of mine, but I am stuck on calibration, can you help? Reply 5 years ago on Introduction.

Thanks In fact I tried to but for some reason I am still not getting good results. It might be my board though. Actually for accurate results,you have to calibrate it at atleast half the load u designed it for.

Say u designed the meter for 16A,then you should atleast calibrate it at 8A,then only u'll get accurate calibration and good results.

I calibrated the same way and getting awesome results :. By abhishek7xavier Follow. More by the author:. Introduction In light of the increasing cost of electricity and the Global Warming campaigns to reduce general electricity usage, there is a growing interest in analyzing power consumption in households.

Problem Statement Most conventional prepaid power meters currently installed in households only display the total real time usage of its power and the amount of electricity available.

Project Objectives and Scope A Smart Meter System is required which can analyze multiple appliances in a household getting readings such as voltage, current, active power, apparent power, reactive power, power factor and frequency.

Energy metering node The energy node unit has the task of taking power measurements when requested and sending them then to the gateway.

Gateway Unit The gateway is responsible for collecting data and then sending it to the android application interface.

Android application interface An android application is designed which is responsible for reading the gateway for each energy node connected and is also responsible for setting various gateway configurations and parameters like various thresholds, etc.

Attachments Schematics. Normal Operation Procedure Performed at Every Reset in the Field The following procedure outlines the steps required to put the meter in normal operation mode.

Reset the CS Restore configuration and control registers. If needed, restore the offset registers from NVM. If needed, restore the phase compensation registers from the NVM.

Send the single conversion command to the CS Confirm that the register checksum is valid, or return to step 1. Send the continuous conversion command to the CS Enable and clear DRDY.

Poll DRDY. Full Calibration and Compensation Procedure Performed Once The following procedure shows the steps required to perform calibration and compensation.

Power up the CS device. Reset the CS device. Verify the register checksum to confirm the reset is successful.

Perform continuous conversion 0xD5 command for 2 seconds. Stop the continuous conversion 0xD8 instruction. Clear DRDY status bit.

Wait for DRDY to be set. If needed, perform phase compensation, AC offset calibration, and power offset correction. Send continuous conversion 0xD8 command.

Calibration completed. Board features includes: 1. NEON floating-point accelerator Connectivity: 1. USB host 3. Ethernet 4. HDMI 5.

Debian 2. Android 3. Ubuntu 4. Die Abbildung auf ganze Zahlen ist dabei willkürlich gewählt. Das Nyquist-Shannon-Abtasttheorem beschreibt in diesem Fall den Effekt, dass in der Folge x [ n ] nur dann die vollständige Information des analogen Signalverlaufs enthalten sein kann, wenn dessen höchsten Frequenzanteile f a kleiner als die halbe Abtastfrequenz f s sind:.

Ordnung gebildet und stellt dann einen zeitkontinuierlichen Verlauf dar, welcher sich nur zu den einzelnen Abtastzeitpunkten in seinem Wert ändert.

Die einzelnen zeitdiskreten Abtastwerte der Folge werden mit der Rechteckfunktion gefaltet. Daraus entsteht ein Digitalsignal, wie in rot in der nebenstehenden Abbildung beispielhaft dargestellt.

Dieser Verlauf f t kann, zumindest näherungsweise, beispielsweise durch einen Spannungsverlauf physikalisch in einer Digitalschaltung und in integrierten Schaltungen realisiert werden.

Dabei ist zu beachten, dass durch die Faltung mit der Rechteckfunktion bei der Umwandlung in den ursprünglichen analogen Signalverlauf mittels Digital-Analog-Umsetzer DAC eine Verzerrung des Frequenzspektrums auftritt, welche durch entsprechende Filter kompensiert werden muss.

Die Verzerrung entspricht der Sinc-Funktion , welche die Fouriertransformierte der Rechteckfunktion darstellt. Höherfrequente Details des aufgenommenen Quellsignals als die halbe Abtastrate, in diesem Fall also ca.

Um diese Werte in Zahlenform darstellen zu können, müssen sie zunächst durch Quantisierung, eine Form von Rundung, in ein festes Werte-Raster eingepasst werden.

Feinere Änderungen zwischen den Werteraster-Stufen werden nicht erfasst oder erzeugen eine Änderung um eine volle Stufe. Übertragen werden können nur Signale, die zeitkontinuierlich sind.

Das bedeutet, dass jedes digitale Signal nur in Form eines analogen Signals übertragen werden kann und auf Empfängerseite dann wieder digitalisiert werden muss.

In der TTL -Technik wird bspw. Solch ein analoges Signal, das plötzliche, schnelle Änderungen im Verlauf aufweist wie z.

Das führt zu Störungen in benachbarten Kanälen bzw. Deshalb wird bei heutigen digitalen Übertragungsverfahren das digitale Signal mit einem kontinuierlichen Grundimpuls mit spezifischen Eigenschaften gefaltet , z.

Das Ergebnis ist dann ebenfalls ein analoges Signal. Ein digitales Signal ist weniger anfällig für Störungen bei der Übertragung, da die Signalpegel mit einer gewissen Toleranz immer noch dem korrekten Wert zugeordnet werden können.

Jedes Signal wird bei der Übertragung immer durch Rauschen überlagert bzw. Wird das verrauschte Signal wieder digitalisiert, so verschwinden diese Störungen durch die Quantisierung wieder.

Deshalb sind digitale Signale besser geeignet, als analoge Signale, um über lange Strecken übertragen zu werden. Stellt man entlang der Strecke Repeater bereit, die das Signal aufbereiten, d.

Ein rein analoges Signal kann zwar ebenfalls immer wieder verstärkt werden, allerdings verstärkt man hier auch bei jedem Mal das Rauschen mit.

Am Ende der Informationsverarbeitungskette ist zur Mitteilung an den Menschen in der Regel wieder eine Umsetzung in ein Analogsignal erforderlich, z.

Binäres Signal Video

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Binäres Signal Video

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